Battle of Round Mountain (Civil War)
The battle of Round Mountain is listed in the "Official Records of the Civil War" as the first battle fought in the Indian Territory. Fourteen hundred Confederates, under the command of Colonel Douglas H. Cooper, First Choctaw and Chickasaw Regiment, were pursuing about 9000 Loyalist civilians led by Opothleyahola, a famous Upper Creek leader. These civilians represented men, women and children of all ages from tribes living in the Indian Territory. They were trying to avoid being pulled into an alliance with the Confederacy and chose to flee their homes for the protection of Union forces in Kansas.
A series of holding actions were fought through the day of November 19, 1861. About sunset, the Confederates forward detachment pursued Loyalist scouts into timberlines skirting the edge of two creeks that formed a horseshoe at the foot of a hill called Round Mountain. The scene in the painting portrays the action that followed. Some seventy Confederates attempted to follow the scouts into the timberlines, but were immediately subjected to heavy fire and forced to retreat. The battle continued into the night with the Confederates and Loyalists breaking off final contact in the early hours of the morning of November 20th.
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